Toba Caldera Geopark, North Sumatra, Indonesia

The evolutions of human culture–nature relationships from histories demonstrate all changes in how people manage and perceive their land. In the past, the relationship between humans and nature is known to have high interdependency reflected by the integration of people’s activities and behaviour towards nature. This integration can be seen through some rituals, rules, and folktales, including awareness, responsibility, and respect between nature and humans. However, by entering the Anthropocene era and industrialization, modernity, and globalization, some influences gradually alter the relationship and nature. Thus, it becomes divisible and changes the ways humans perceive and manage landscape (McHarg, 1992).

On the other hand, rich natural and cultural land, namely Toba Caldera Geopark, is facing shifts in its economic scheme: becoming the main priority in the tourism sector in Indonesia for national economic growth. Thus, it raises two main challenges which are about nature–biophysical capacity and integration and human culture–the changing of cultural identity that is presently (and in the past) becoming tourism assets and vulnerably loss because of sharing culture. So then, how can the new tourism program act as a tool to create a robust future human culture–nature relationship?

Therefore, this project unveils explorations to balance the present and future ecosystem services (provisioning, regulating, and cultural services) that are already embedded in the landscape and local culture since the past? The understanding starts by theoretical formulation, including all elements that influence the evolution of human culture – nature relationship. This theory is used from analysis to strategic design. First, the deconstruction of the performative landscape from the past to present and its relation to culture. The deconstruction is classified into softscape and hardscape and tested in two different areas with different characteristics. Second, the re-construction of all interventions by proposing new schemes of strategic pathways by considering governance systems, uncertainties, collaborative management, and evaluation of existing masterplan. Lastly, projecting feasibility and acceptance by using a local perspective to grasp the limitation of this thesis which is site visiting.

(thesis under conclusion)